Estudos de direito internacional. Formação e evolução do conceito de segurança


  • João Amorim Esteves Professor de Relações Internacionais da Universidade Lusíada do Porto


1. Introdução.
2. Definição de estudos de segurança internacional.
    2.1. Três formas sobre segurança e conceitos adjacentes
    2.2. A fronteira disciplinar dos estudos de segurança internacional.
3. Questões-chave nos estudos de segurança internacional.
    3.1. Epistemologia e debates de segurança.
    3.2. Breve referência aos conceitos de segurança.
4. As forças motrizes na evolução dos estudos de segurança internacional.
5. Estudos estratégicos, dissuasão e guerra-fria.
6. O desafio da segurança nacional durante a guerra-fria.
7. Estudos de segurança internacional pós guerra-fria
8. O retorno à segurança nacional após o 11 de Setembro.
9. Conclusão.


Estudos de segurança internacional, Guerra-fria, Segurança nacional


ALKER, Hayward R (1988): Emancipatory Empiricism: Toward a Renewal

of Empirical Peace Research. In: WALLENSTEEN, Peter (ed.). Peace Research: Achievements and Challenges. Boulder, Westview, p. 219-41.

ANDERSON, Benedict (1991): Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Londres, p.17.

ARON, Raymond (1965): The Great Debate. Nova York: Doubleday.

ASHLEY, Richard K (1981): Political Realism and Human Interests. International Studies Quarterly, v. 25, n. 2, p. 204- 36.

BARNETT, Jon (2007): Environmental Security. In: COLLINS, Alan R. (ed.): Contemporary Security Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 189.

BARNETT, Michael (2006): Building a Republican Peace: Stabilizing States after War. International Security, v.30, n. 4, p. 87-112.

BEAUFRE, Andre: An Introduction to Strategy. Londres: Faber & Faber, 1965.

BECK, Ulrich (1992): Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, Londres: SAGE.

________(1999): World Risk Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.

BELL, Colleen (2006): Biopolitical Governance in Canada’s National Security Policy. Security Dialogue, v. 37, n. 2, p. 147-65.

BUZAN, Barry (1983): People, States and Fear. The National Security Problem in International Relations, Londres: Harvester Wheatsheaf, p. 3.

_______(1984a): Peace, Power, and Security: Contending Concepts in the Study of International Relations. Journal of Peace Research, v. 21, n. 2, p. l09-25.

_______(1984b): Economic Structure and International Security: The Limits of the Liberal Case. International Organization, v.38, n.4, p. 597 -624.

_______(1987a): An Introduction to Strategic Studies: Military Technology and lnternational Relations. Londres: Macmillan.

BUZAN, Barry et al. (1990): The European Security Order Recast. Scenarios for the Post-Cold War Era, Londres: Pinter, p. 9.

BUZAN, Barry; HANSEN, Lene (2012): A evolução dos Estudos de Segurança Internacional; tradução Flávio Lira. São Paulo Editora Unesp, Brasil.

BUZAN, Barry; HANSEN, Lene (eds.) (2007): International Security. Londrcs: SAGE.

BUZAN, Barry; WAEVER, Ole; WlLDE, Jaap de. Security (1998): A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 21, 24, 71-72

BILGIN, Pinar (2003): Individual and Societal Dimensions of Security. International Studies Review, v. 5, n. 2, p. 203-22.

_______(2008): Thinking Past “Western” IR? Third Word Quarterly, v. 29, n. l, p. 5-23.

BOULDING, Elise (1984): Focus On: The Gender Gap. Journal of Peace Research, v. 21, n.1, p. 2-3.

BOYLE, Michael J. (2008): The War on Terror in American Grand Strategy. International Affairs, v. 84, n. 2, p.191-209.

BRODIE, Bernard (1976): Technological Change, Strategic Doctrine and Political Outcomes. In KNORR, Klaus (ed.). Historical Dimensions of National Security Problems. Laurence, University Press of Kansas, p. 263-306.

CAMPBELL, David (1990): Global Inscription: How Foreign Policy Constitutes the United States. Alternatives, v. 15, n. 3, 1990, p. 270.

________(1992): Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

COHN, Carol (1987): Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals. Signs, v.12, n. 4, p. 711.

DALBY, Simon (1988): Geopolitical Discourse: The Soviet Union as Other. Alternatives, v.13, n. 4, p. 416.

DE MESQUITA, Bruce B.; MORROW, James D (1999): Sorting Through the Wealth of Notions. International Security, v. 24, n. 2, p. 56-73.

________(1982): RIKER, William H: An Assessment of the Merits of Selective Nuclear Proliferation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, v. 26, n. 2, p. 283-306.

DeBLOIS, Bruce M. et. Al (2004): Space Weapons: Crossing the US Rubicon. International Security, v. 29, n. 2, p. 50-84.

DER DERIAN, James (2005): Imaging Terror: Logos, Pathos and Ethos. Third World Quarterly, v .26, n. 1, p. 23-37.

DILLON, Michael; REID, Julian (1990): The Alliance of Security and Subjectivity. Current Research on Peace and Violence, v.13, n. 3, pp.102, 103.

DOUGLAS, Frank Scott (2007): Waging the Inchoate War: Defining, Fighting and Second-guessing the “Long War”. Journal of Strategic Studies, v. 30, n. 3, p. 391-420.

EPSTEIN, Charlotte (2007): Guilty Bodies, Productive Bodies, Destructive Bodies: Crossing the Biometric Borders. International Political Sociology, v.1, n. 2, p. 149-64.

ESTEVES, João Amorim (2011): Questões Políticas e Estratégicas na Bacia do Mediterrâneo, Revista n. 4, 2. Semestre, Faculdade de Direito da Universidade do Porto, Lisboa, Universidade Lusíada Editora, p. 29-68.

________: (2012): A Intervenção da Comunidade Internacional na Primavera Árabe, Revista n. 5/6, Faculdade de Direito da Universidade do Porto, Lisboa, Universidade Lusíada Editora, pp.97-170.

FREEDMAN, Lawrence (1981a): The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy. Londres: Macmillan. (Edições subsequentes em 1989 e 2003).

________(1981b): Britain: The First Ex-nuclear Power? International Security, v. 6, n. 2, p. 80-104.

________(2006a): Iraq, Liberal Wars and Illiberal Containment. Survival, v. 48, n. 4, p. 51-66.

________(2006b):The Transformation of Strategic Affairs. Adelfis n. 378, Londres: IISS.

FRIEDMAN, George (2010): The Next 100 Years (Os Próximos 100 Anos –Uma previsão para o Século XXI), 3ª. ed. Alfragide, Portugal.

________: (2012): The Next Decade – Where we’ve been… and Where We’re Going (A Próxima Década), 1ª. ed. Alfragide, Portugal.

GALLOIS, Pierre (1961): The Balance of Terror: Strategy for the Nuclear Age. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GALTUNG, Johan (1969): Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, v. 6, n. 3, pp. 168, 171, 175, 183.

GLEDITSCH, Nils P (1989): Focus On: Journal of Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, v. 26, n. l, p. 4.

GRAY Colin S (1980): Strategic Stability Reconsidered. Daedalus, v. 109, n. 4, pp.139, 142.

HANSEN, Lene (2006): Security as Practice: Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War. Londres: Routledge.

HASSNER, Pierre (1968): The Changing Context of European Security. Journal of Common Market Studies, v. 7, n. l, p.1-21.

HERZ, John (1950): Idealist Internationalism and the Security Dilemma. World Politics, v. 2, n. 2, p. 157.

HOLMES, Terence M (2007): Planning versus Chaos in Clausewitz’s On War. Journal of Strategic Studies, v. 30, n. 1, p. 129-51.

HOOK, Glenn D (1984): The Nuclearization of Language: Nuclear Allergy as Political Metaphor. Journal of Peace Research v. 21, n. 3, p. 260.

HOWARD, Michael (1973): The Relevance of Traditional Strategy. Foreign Affairs, v .51, n. 2, p. 253-66.

________(1976): The Strategic Approach to International Relations. British Journal of International Studies, v. 2, n. l, p. 67-75.

________(1979): The Forgotten Dimensions of Strategy. Foreign Affairs, v. 57, n. 5, p. 975-86.

________(1981): War and the Liberal Conscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

HUNTINGTON, Samuel P: Why International Primacy Matters. International Security, v.17, n. 4, 1993b, p. 68-83.

________(1999): The Lonely Superpower. Foreign Affairs, v. 78, n. 2, p. 35-49.

IKENBERRY, G. John (2001a): After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

________(2001b): American Grand Strategy in the Age of Terror. Survival, v. 43, n. 4, p. 19-34.

JERVIS, Robert (1979/80): Why Nuclear Superiority Doesn’t Matter. Political Science Quarterly, v. 94, n. 4, p. 630.

KAGAN, Robert (2002): Power and Weakness. Policy Review, n. 113, p. l-29.

KATZENSTEIN, Peter J. (ed.) (1996a): The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. Nova York: Columbia University Press.

KAUFMANN, Chaim (1996): Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars. International Security, v. 20, n. 4, p.136-75.

KENNAN, George F (1947): The Sources of Soviet Conduct. Foreign Affairs, v. 25, n. 4, p. 581.

KEOHANE, Robert O (1988): International Institutions: Two Approaches.

International Studies Quarterly, v. 32, n. 4, p. 379-96 (cap. 2-3).

KINSEY, Christopher (2007): Corporate Soldiers and International Security: The Rise of Private Military Companies. Londres: Routledge.

KNORR, Klaus; TRAGER, Frank N (1977): Economic Issues and National Security.

Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas for the National Security Education Program.

KOBLENTZ, Gregory: Pathogens as Weapons (2003/4): The International Security Implications of Biological Warfare. International Security, v. 28, n. 3, p. 84-122.

KRAUSE, Keith (1996): Insecurity and. State Formation in the Global Military Order: The Middle Eastern Case. European Journal of International Relations, v. 2, n. 3, p. 319-54.

KUPCHAN, Charles A (1998): After Pax Americana: Benign Power, Regional Integration and the Sources of Stable Multipolarity. International Security, v. 23, n. 2, p. 40-79.

LIDDELL HART, Basil (1946): The Revolution in Warfare. Londres: Faber & Faber.

MATHEWS, Jessica T (1989): Redefining Security. Foreign Affairs, v. 68, n. 2, p. 162-77.

MARTEN, Kimberly Z (2007): Warlordism in Comparative Perspective. International Security, v. 3l, n. 3, p. 4l-73.

MEARSHEIMER, John J (1990): Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War. International Security, v. 15, n.1.

MEARSHEIMER, John J: Hans Morgenthau and the Iraq War: Realism versus Neo-conservatism. Disponível em: (acesso em 24 Out 2014).

WILLIAMS, Michael C (1998): Identity and the Politics of Security. European Journal of International Relations, v. 4, n. 2, p. 204-25.

________(2005): What is the National Interest? The Neoconservative Challenge in IR Theory. European Journal of International Relations, v.11, n. 3, p. 307-37.

________(2007): Culture and Security: Symbolic Power and the Politics of International Security. Londres: Routledge, p. 17.

MORGENTHAU, Hans J (1946): Scientific Man versus Power Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

________(1951): In Defense of the National Interest. Nova York: Knopf.

________(1978): Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, 5.ed. Nova York: Knopf.

NYE, Joseph S. Jr (1974): Collective Economic Security. International Affairs, v. 50, n. 4, p. 584-98.

________(1986): Nuclear Winter and Policy Choices. Survival, v. 28, n. 2, p.119-27.

________(1990): Soft Power. Foreign Policy, n. 80, p. 153-71.

________(2002): The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower can’t go it Alone, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

PARMAR, Inderjeet (2005): Catalyzing Events, Think Tanks and American Foreign Policy Shifts: A Comparative Analysis of the Impacts of Pearl Harbor 1941 and 11 September 2001. Government and Opposition, v. 40, n. 1, p. 17.

PERCY, Sarah (2006): Regulating the Security Industry. Adelphi 384, Londres: IISS.

POSEN, Barry R (1993): The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict. Survival, v. 35, n.1, p. 27-47.

________(2001/2): The Struggle Against Terrorism: Grand Strategy, Strategy and Tactics. International Security, v. 26, n. 3, p.39-55.

ROSECRANCE, Richard (1975): Strategic Deterrence Reconsidered. Adelphi 116, London: IISS.

RUDDICK, Sara (1989): Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. Boston: Beacon Press, pp. 85, 145.

SAMSON (2007): Vitoria Prospects for Russian-American Missile Defence Cooperation: Lessons from RAMOS and JDEC. Contemporary Security Policy, v. 28, n. 3, p. 494-512.

NUNES, Isabel Ferreira (Coord.) (2013): Segurança Internacional – Perspetivas Analíticas, Lisboa, Instituto da Defesa Nacional, Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda.

SINGER, P. W (2001/2): Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry and Its Ramifications for International Security. International Security, v. 26, n. 3, p.186- 220.

SLOCOMBE, Walter B (2008): Europe, Russia and American Missile Defence. Survival, v. 50, n. 2, p.19-24.

STEEL, Ronald (2007): An Iraq Syndrome? Survival, v. 49, n. l, p.153-62.

SNOW, Donald M (1979): Current Nuclear Deterrence Thinking. International Studies Quarterly, v. 23, n. 3, p. 445-86.

THOMAS, Ward (2000): Norms and Security: The Case of International Assassination. International Security, v.25, n. l, p. l05-33.

WALKER, R. B. J (1987): Realism, Change and International Political Theory. International Studies Quarterly, v. 31, n. 1, p. 65-86.

________(1990): Security, Sovereignty, and the Challenge of World Politics. Alternatives, v. 15, n. 1, p. 3-27.

________(1993): Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

________(1997): The Subject of Security. In KRAUSE, Keith; WILLIAMS, Michael C. (eds.). Critical Security Studies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, p. 61-81.

________(2006): Lines of Insecurity: International, Imperial, Exceptional. Security Dialogue, v. 37, n.1, p. 65-82.

ULLMAN, Richard (1983): Redefining Security. International Security, v. 8, n. 1, p.129-53.

WALT, Stephen M (1991): The Renaissance of Security Studies. International Studies Quarterly, v. 35, n. 2, p. 223.

WALTZ, Kenneth N (1964): The Stability of a Bipolar World. Daedalus, v. 93, n. 3, p. 881-909.

_______(1979): Theory of International Politics. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.

_______(1993): The Emerging Structure of International Politics. International Security v. 18, n. 2, 1993, p. 44-79.

WAEVER, Ole (1995): Securitization and Desecuritization. In LIPSCHUTZ, Ronnie D. (ed.): On Security. Nova York: Columbia University Press, p. 46-86.

_______(1997): The Baltic Sea: A Region after Post-modernity? in JOENNIEMI, Pertti (ed.): Neo-nationalism or Regionality: The Restructuring of Political Space Around the Baltic Rim. Estocolmo: NordREFO, p. 293-342.

_______(1998): The Sociology of a not so International Discipline: American and European Developments in International Relations. International Organization, v. 52, n. 4, p. 687-727.

_______(2006): Security: A Conceptual History for International Relations. Disponível em: (acesso em 24Out2014).

_______(2007): Still a Discipline After all these Debates? In: DUNNE, Tim,

KURKI, Milja; SMITH, Steve (eds.). International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 288-308.

WAEVER, Ole et. Al (1993): Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe. Londres: Pinter.

WEBER, Cynthia (2006a): An Aesthetics of Fear: The 7/7 Londres Bombings, the Sublime and Millennium, v. 34, n. 3, p. 683-710.

WELDES, Jutta (1996): Constructing National Interests. European Journal of International Relations, v. 2, n. 3, p. 275-318.

WILKINSON, Paul (1986): Terrorism and Liberal State, 2nd. ed. New York, New York University Press.

WOLF, Klaus Dieter; DEITELHOFF, Nicole; ENGERT, Stefan (2007): Corporate Security Responsibility: Towards a Conceptual Framework for a Comparative Research Agenda. Cooperation and Conflict, v. 42, n. 3, 2007, p. 294-320.

WOLFERS, Arnold (1952): National Security as an Ambiguous Symbol. Political Science Quarterly, v. 67, n. 4, p. 485.

YERGIN, Daniel (1978): Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.




Como Citar

Esteves, J. A. (2015). Estudos de direito internacional. Formação e evolução do conceito de segurança. Lusíada. Direito, (12), 51–98. Obtido de